Expenditures for research and development are current and capital expenditures (both public and private) on creative work undertaken systematically to increase knowledge, including knowledge of humanity, culture, and society, and the use of knowledge for new applications. R&D covers basic research, applied research, and experimental development. Weighted average. The OECD's Frascati Manual defines research and experimental development as "creative work undertaken on a systemic basis in order to increase the stock of knowledge, including knowledge of man, culture and society, and the use of this stock of knowledge to devise new applications." R&D covers basic research, applied research, and experimental development.
Data on researchers and technicians in R&D are measured in both full-time equivalent and headcount but are shown in full-time equivalent only.
UNESCO Institute for Statistics
|Research and development expenditure (% of GDP)
Research and development expenditure (% of GDP)
Blue = Data, Grey = No Data
Years collected: 1992 - 2016
Countries covered: 77
Disclaimer: Country borders or names do not necessarily reflect the World Bank Group's official position. This map is for illustrative purposes and does not imply the expression of any opinion on the part of the World Bank, concerning the legal status of any country or territory or concerning the delimitation of frontiers or boundaries.