Research and development expenditure (% of GDP)

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Expenditures for research and development are current and capital expenditures (both public and private) on creative work undertaken systematically to increase knowledge, including knowledge of humanity, culture, and society, and the use of knowledge for new applications. R&D covers basic research, applied research, and experimental development. Weighted average. The OECD's Frascati Manual defines research and experimental development as "creative work undertaken on a systemic basis in order to increase the stock of knowledge, including knowledge of man, culture and society, and the use of this stock of knowledge to devise new applications." R&D covers basic research, applied research, and experimental development. Data on researchers and technicians in R&D are measured in both full-time equivalent and headcount but are shown in full-time equivalent only.

Data Set:

UNESCO Institute for Statistics

Research and development expenditure (% of GDP)


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Country 2006 2009 2010
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Data Coverage


Research and development expenditure (% of GDP)

Blue = Data, Grey = No Data

Data Stats

Years collected: 1992 - 2016

Countries covered: 77

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